Central heating - hot water
Early hot water systems were used in Russia for central heating of the Summer Palace (1710?1714) of Peter the Great in Saint Petersburg. Slightly later, in 1716, came the first use of water in Sweden to distribute heating in buildings. M?rten Triewald, a Swedish engineer, used this method for a greenhouse at Newcastle upon Tyne. Jean Simon Bonnemain (1743?1830), a French architect, introduced the technique to industry on a cooperative, at Château du P?cq, near Paris.
However, these scattered attempts were isolated and mainly confined in their application to greenhouses. Tredgold originally dismissed its use as impractical, but changed his mind in 1836, when the technology went into a phase of rapid development.
Early systems had used low pressure water systems, which required very large pipes. One of the first modern hot water central heating systems to remedy this deficiency were installed by Angier March Perkins in London in the 1830s. At that time central heating was coming into fashion in Britain, with steam or hot air systems generally being used.
Perkins' 1832 apparatus distributed water at 200 degrees Celsius (392 °F) through small diameter pipes at high pressure. A crucial invention to make the system viable was the thread screwed joint, that allowed the joint between the pipes to bear a similar pressure to the pipe itself. He also separated the boiler from the heat source to reduce the risk of explosion. The first unit was installed in the home of Governor of the Bank of England John Horsley Palmer so that he could grow grapes in England's cold climate.
Flexibility of pipes - Wikipedia
Plastic Pipes are classified by their ring stiffness. The preferred stiffness classes as described in several product standards are: SN2, SN4, SN8 and SN16, where SN is Nominal Stiffness (kN/m2). Stiffness of pipes is important if they are to withstand external loadings during installation. The higher the figure, the stiffer the pipe!
After correct installation, pipe deflection remains very limited but it will continue to some extent for a while. In relation to the soil in which it is embedded, the plastic pipe behaves in a 'flexible' way. This means that further deflection in time depends of the settlement of the soil around the pipe.
Basically, the pipe follows the soil movement or settlement of the backfill, as technicians call it. This means that good installation of pipes will result in good soil settlement. Further deflection will remain limited.
For flexible pipes, the soil loading is distributed and supported by the surrounding soil. Stresses and strains caused by the deflection of the pipe will occur within the pipe wall. However, the induced stresses will never exceed the allowed limit values.
The thermoplastic behavior of the pipe material is such that the induced stresses are relaxing to a very low level. It has to be noted that induced strains are far below the allowable levels.
This flexible behaviour means that the pipe will not fail. It will exhibit only more deflection while keeping its function without breaking.
However, rigid pipes by their very nature are not flexible and will not follow ground movements. They will bear all the ground loadings, whatever the soil settlement. This means that when a rigid pipe is subject to excessive loading, it will reach the limit for stress values more quickly and break.
It can therefore be concluded that the flexibility of plastic pipes is such that it offers an extra dimension of safety. Buried Pipes need flexibility9
apartments excluded from the refurbishment
When a residential building administrators will notice that there is a need for its repair hydraulic, then join the collection of funds needed for this purpose. They may come from the so-called. repair fund or will temporarily raise the rent. Before joining the fundraiser will have to obtain the consent of residents to take such steps. They perform, so you need a vote on one of the meetings with residents and cooperative will be able to proceed with the execution of the repair only after obtaining the consent of the majority population. Residents who do not give their consent for the renovation will be excluded from it. However, mandatory will be carried out such plumbing, which will serve to prevent the creation of a large block of water leakage.